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In this paper, the author reports on how the European and American Competition Authorities apprehend margin squeeze viz. the fact for dominant undertakings operating simultaneously as vertically-integrated entities and as downstream market participants to increase wholesale prices by reducing their retail price, thus squeezing their downstream-market competitors out.#This is significant because the ...
In national cases where EU law issues arise, legal practitioners (i.e. lawyers and legal advisors) often have to deal with problems related with the meaning of a particular legal provision. In such situations, it is vital for practitioners to know how to use the interpretative tools in order, not only, to defend the client’s interests in courts at national level, but also to contribute with better ...
This paper considers the ongoing debate around criminal enforcement of competition law and discusses whether the provision of criminal offences is a desirable option to prevent the great harm caused to the economy and consumers by cartel behaviour. After having given an account of the main arguments invoked to support criminalisation, the article highlights the significant difficulties – both theoretical ...
Although cryptocurrencies were originally intended to create alternative currency, they have been branded with litany of names including money, commodity, security, and payment instruments. This article overviews the established wisdom that cryptocurrencies do not qualify as investment contract because they do not meet the criteria of investment of money in a common enterprise with reasonable expectation ...
1. Introduction When entering into negotiations, the two parties involved naturally believe in the formation and conclusion of a valid agreement. However, sometimes one of the parties may enter into such an agreement under false pretences or without any intention to conclude the contract and, in the same way, creating valid expectations for the other party that such an agreement will come into effect. ...
In the United States, mass shootings are commonplace and public reaction is clockwork: the shooting occurs, pro-control activists demand gun regulation, anti-control proponents balk against further regulation, and eventually, the incident is long forgotten. American politicians and policy-makers have thus become professionals at riding out the waves of gun violence. The question begging an answer ...

Magazine article - BLP - 2015/5

Ricolfi Marco

Towards a EU Copyright Code? A Conceptual Framework


1. Introduction Over the last few years, references to the notion of a Copyright Code, and specifically to the notion of a European Copyright Code, have cropped up on various occasions and in various contexts. In fact, the idea has been discussed in different scholarly writings.[1] A few years ago, a group of scholars called the «Wittem group» came up with a text that proposed rules concerning several ...
1. The Media’s Redundant Emphasis on Risks and the Elitist Specious Creation of Collective Worries In today's society—it has been affirmed authoritatively—security is only a social pretense and, as a consequence, the overcoming of risks is merely symbolic.[1] And, as a matter of fact, the role of the mass media follows this direction in an increasingly crucial way, especially through the ...
Sommario 1. Introduction   A good traveler has no fixed plans, and is not intent on arriving (Lao Tzu)   This article will explain how the megacity of Shanghai, China is currently developed and ever progressing, which is key to attracting foreign investors and continuing to build a world leading financial center. Additionally, this article will revisit the setbacks China experienced under rule ...
Sommario 1. Introduction: An Overview on Automotive Spare Parts Protection in China, the EU and the US The protection of the outer design of automotive spare parts in China is critical to foreign car brands for a number of reasons. The auto market in China is still booming and spare parts are a great source of income. At the same time, China is the world center of spare part counterfeit ...